□ Recognize that all Matter has mass, takes up space, and has gravity

All Matter has mass.

All masses take up space.

All masses are attracted to other masses (gravity)

Gravity is changed by mass.

If the mass of one or both of the objects is increased, then the gravity between them is also increased.

Gravity is changed by distance

If the distance between the objects is increased, then the gravity between them is decreased.

The amount of gravity between two objects is called weight.


□ Know the location and charge of the three particles found in atoms


The atom above is a model of the element Boron. How do we know? The atom has five (5) protons. If we go to the periodic table of elements and find the atomic number 5, we will see the capital "B" which stands for Boron.

This is why it is important to become familiar with the symbols and names of elements.

The atomic mass is 11 after it is rounded. This number describes how many particles are in the nucleus. (Protons + Neutrons)

So, 11 particles are in the nucleus

and 5 of them have to be protons.

How many neutrons are there?

Check the picture to see six (6) neutrons.


□ Identify the four states of Matter and be able to recognize the changes between them

Matter can exist in four basic states.









Two things happen when heat is added to particles.

(melting, boiling, evaporation, sublimation)

1. particles speed up

2. particles spread out


Two things happen when heat is removed from particles.

(freezing, condensing, deposition)

1. particles slow down

2. particles get closer together


Below is a chart of solid, liquid and gas trends.

A blank copy of this chart can be found here

Worksheet: Which state of Matter is it in?


□ Identify the difference between physical and chemical changes

A physical change is simply a change in the appearance of matter.

The matter itself is unchanged.

Look for 3 indicators that a physical change has occurred.

1. the matter changes shape and/or size

molding clay

breaking a window

cutting down a tree

Chewing (not digesting)


2. the matter dissolves

A physical change occurs when something dissolves or precipitates out.

Making rock candy requires sugar water.When sugar dissolves in the water it may look as if it is gone. The sugar is "hiding" between the molecules of water but is not by any means different Matter.


Once the sugar is dissolved in the water a string is dropped in. As the water evaporates away the sugar is left behind. It precipitates out of the water onto the string. The sugar and water are both unchanged. This is a PHYSICAL CHANGE.


3. a change in the state of matter

A physical change could be melting, freezing, boiling, condensing etc.

Each of these process change the look of the Matter but it is still the same variety of Matter.

Ice, liquid water, water vapor are all forms of H2O


See if you can explain the picture using your knowledge of physical changes.

What is that coming off of his head? It looks like his HEAD IS ON FIRE!!! that can't be right!

Hint: Chris Zorich was a Chicago Bear. This week he was in Green Bay. Football in Wisconsin is COLD...dare I say freezing cold)

"Boiling" does not mean hot.

It can feel hot to us sometimes, (like with water) but what would you say about liquid Nitrogen boiling at -198 degrees Celsius?

It bubbles but would freeze off your hand!

Boiling is heating a liquid to a gas.


"Freezing" does not mean cold.

It can feel cold to us sometimes, (like with ice) but what would you say about a solid cookie sheet that has been at 200 degrees C for 8 minutes? An Aluminum pan wouldn't melt until 660 degrees C.

It BURNS but is still frozen solid.

Freezing is removing heat from a liquid to make a solid.



A chemical change is a rearranging of Matter into something different.

Look for SIX 6 key things in a chemical change.

gives off light

a. This genetically altered tobacco plant produces the same chemicals as a firefly. Like a halloween glowstick, when some chemicals rearrange they release energy in the form of light.

b. The Mg ribbon gives off a tremendous amount of energy in the form light when burned.

gas is produced

Alka Seltzer in water is a chemical reaction. The tablets react with the water and rearrange the Matter. As a result Carbon dioxide gas is formed. This gas is less dense than the water so we see bubbles.

Bubbles will often mean a chemical change has occurred. Be careful however that the substance isn't boiling. Those bubbles are a physical change.

change in color

The Statue of Liberty is Copper.

Over time the weather oxidizes the surface into Copper Oxide (this like rust for copper)

Copper Oxide is green while the original statue was built shiny like a penny.

That would be a sight to see!

Matter "appears" to be lost

Find the mass of a match before and after it is burned. The match seems to lose Matter after it is burned. The burned match has less mass but some of the Matter has been rearranged by the flame into the gas state. Most of the gases released would be carbon dioxide and water vapor.

If we added the gases to the mass of the burned match it would equal the match before it was burned.

temperature difference

Sometimes when chemicals react heat is lost (things get colder). The chemicals of these cold packs will pull the heat from your sore body and make it cool off.

Other times heat is gained (things get hotter) when chemicals react. These handewarmers have two chemicals that release heat when they are crushed together.

BOTH are chemical reactions

flame (smoke)is visible

The fire is converting Matter into newly rearranged Matter. Fire cannot exist without performing a chemical change on the fuel it is burning. Most often carbon dioxide and water are released from a fire.

The particles of smoke used to be part of something else. It is primarily made up of carbon particles but numerous other substances are found in smoke as well. It all depends on what is being burned and what the old matter is changed into.

a precipitate is formed

a chemical reaction produces new matter from the old. Sometimes, this new matter is insoluable (won't dissolve) in the liquid it is in.

It's like smoke but within a fluid. This is a clear indicator of a chemical change.


□ Identify the difference between pure substances and mixtures


All Matter has mass and takes up space.

All Matter is attracted to other Matter (gravity) and can be classified into two groups.


All substances are pure. They are only made up of one element or one compound.


All mixtures are impure by definition. They are made up of two or more elements and/or compounds.


These are the basic building blocks of the universe. There are close to 118 elements known (depending on which table you look at) and each has its own unique properties.


When two or more elements are chemically bonded together they are called compounds.

Two Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom make one molecule of H2O. Water is a compound.


elements and compounds are mixed together so that it has the same composition all the way through.

milk, gasoline, brass and others are good examples. Milk is made of water, proteins and sugars. What would happen if one sip was of only protein and the next was only water. YUCK! Thank goodness milk is a uniform mixture.


elements and compounds are mixed together so that it DOES NOT have the same composition all the way through.

M&M trail mix would be a great non-uniform mixture. Grab a handful and see what you get. The next handful is almost guaranteed to be made up of different colors, nuts, raisins etc.


□ Recognize the properties that help to identify Matter

malleability - if a hammer struck it, would it flatten into sheets?
brittleness - if a hammer struck it, would it shatter?
color- which wavelegths of light are bouncing off of the object?
odor - what does is smell like?
hardness - the ability to resist being scratched
luster - how much does it shine?
solubility - does the substance dissolve?
taste - Is it sweet, sour, salty, or bitter?
tensile strength - how much pulling force can it take before it snaps?
ductility - can it be rolled into strong wires?
conductivity of electricity - Are electrons able to flow freely through the substance?
conductivity of heat - Is heat energy allowed to pass through easily?
melting/freezing point
boiling/condensation point


and most of all...Density - How much Matter is crammed into it's space?

Floating on the Dead Sea is easy. Saltwater is MORE dense than fresh water.